Common Name: House Mouse
Scientific Name: Mus Musculus Linnaeus
The house mouse is the most commonly encountered and economically important of the commensal rodents, the Norway and roof/black rats being the other two. House mice are not only a nuisance, damage/destroy materials by gnawing, and eat and contaminate stored food, they are also of human health importance as disease carriers or vectors. It is thought to be of Central Asian origin, but is now of worldwide distribution and found throughout the United States.
Adult with head and body length 2.5-2.5″ (6.5-9 cm), tail length 2 3/4-4″ (7-10.2 cm), weight about 1/2-1 oz (12-30 g). Fur smooth, color usually dusty gray above and light gray or cream on belly (some mice light brown to dark gray above), but fur color varies considerably from area to area or location to location regardless of living habits. With muzzle pointed, eyes small, incisors ungrooved, ears large with some hair. Feet short and broad. With a uniformly dark, scaly, semi-naked tail. Adult droppings with ridges), with pointed ends SIGNS OF INFESTATION Gnaw marks. New gnawings or holes tend to be rough whereas, old gnawings are smooth from wear.
Droppings. Fresh droppings are soft and moist whereas, old droppings are dried and hard; house mouse’s about 1/8-1/4″ (3-6 mm) long ans with ridges. Tracks/footprints. Front foot 4-toed and print is in front of hind print with 5-toes. Fresh tracks are clear and sharp whereas, old tracks are at least partially obscured by dust. Rub marks. There are usually less noticeable and smaller in size than those of rats.
Burrows. Indoors they often nest in various materials such as insulation. If active, free of dust and cobwebs. Entrance usually with material packed/compressed, rub marks sometimes visible.
Runways. Frequently use the same paths, usually along walls, stacked merchandise, etc., and to interior objects. Active runways free of dust and cobwebs, with fresh droppings. Tracks may or may not be viable. Damaged goods. Mice prefer seeds or cereals.
Signs of Infestation
Gnaw marks. New gnawings or holes tend to be rough whereas, old gnawings are smooth from wear. Droppings. Fresh droppings are soft and moist whereas, old droppings are dried and hard; house mouse’s about 1/8-1/4″ (3-6 mm) long ans with ridges. Tracks/footprints. Front foot 4-toed and print is in front of hind print with 5-toes. Fresh tracks are clear and sharp whereas, old tracks are at least partially obscured by dust. Rub marks.
There are usually less noticeable and smaller in size than those of rats. Burrows. Indoors they often nest in various materials such as insulation. If active, free of dust and cobwebs. Entrance usually with material packed/compressed, rub marks sometimes visible. Runways. Frequently use the same paths, usually along walls, stacked merchandise, etc., and to interior objects. Active runways free of dust and cobwebs, with fresh droppings. Tracks may or may not be viable. Damaged goods. Mice prefer seeds or cereals.
(1) Adult Norway (Rattus norvegicus) and roof/black (R. Rattus) rats with body and head length 7-9.5″ (18-25 cm) and weigh 7-18+ oz (200-500+ g).
(2) Young Norway and roof/black rats with head and feet disproportionately large for body size.
(3) Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and white-footed mouse (P. Leucopus) very similar in size and weight but with distinct bicolored tail (tawny brown above, white underneath), an distinct line evident where 2 colors meet, seed feeders. (4) Most other native rats and mice with hairy tail, hairs short or long, or if tail almost naked, it is also annulate (appears to be of ringlike segments).
The house mouse is a prolific breeder. They reach sexual maturity in 35 days. Pregnancy lasts an average of 19 days (range 18-21). The young are blind and naked expect for vibrissae (long whiskers), and are weaned at about 3-4 weeks. The average litter size is 6 (range 5-8), with about 8 litters per year, but averaging 30-35 weaned/female/year.
Therefore, a female can have a new litter about once every 40-50 days. More than 1 litter may be present in the nest at one time. Life expectancy is normally less that 1 year, but mice have been known to live as long as 6 years. Mice have keen senses, except for sight because they cannot see clearly beyond 6″ (15 cm) and are color blind. They are excellent climbers and can run up most roughened walls.
Mice can swim but prefer not to do so. They can jump 12″ (30.5 cm) high and can jump down form about 8 ft (205 m) high without injury. Mice can survive and thrive in cold storage facilities at 14F (-10C). They can run horizontally along pipes, ropes, and wires. A mouse requires about 1-10 oz (2.8 g) of dry food and 1/20 oz (105 ml) of water (normally obtained from food) each day and produces about 50 droppings each day.
Over a 6-month period, a pair of mice will eat about 4 pounds (1.8 kg) of food, produce about 18,000 droppings, and void about 3/4 pint/12 oz (355 ml) of urine. The most common way mice transmit disease organisms is by contaminating food with their droppings and/or urine. The most threatening organism spread by mice is Salmonella, a cause of food poisoning. Spread via droppings.
Other transmittable organisms include tapeworms via droppings, rat-bite fever via bites, infectious jaundice/leptospirosis/Weil’s Disease via urine in food or water, a fungus disease (Favus) of the scalp either by direct contact or indirectly via cats, plague and murine typhus via fleas, Rickettsial pox via the mite possibly poliomyelitis (polio). Another problem is house mouse mite dermatitis which is caused by these mites when they feed on humans.
Mice are very social. Related males and females are compatible, but unrelated male mice are typically very aggressive toward one another. Social hierarchies with one male dominating lower-ranking males result in the maintenance of territories, which may include a large number of females as well as lower-ranking males, most of which will be related. All mature mice tend to show aggression towards strangers of either sex that enter their territory, which is marked with urine.
Territory size varies but it is usually relatively small. If food and shelter are plentiful, they may not travel more than 4-5 feet (1.2-1.5 m) from their nests. Mice are inquisitive. During the daily territorial patrol, they will explore anything new or changed, and establish new travel routes if needed. Mice are nibblers and eat only small amounts of food at any one time or place. Although mice will eat many kinds of food, seed are usually preferred.
There are 2 main feeding periods, at dusk and just before dawn, with many other “mini” feeding times in between. They will sample new foods but return to the old food unless the new food is preferred. Required moisture is normally obtained from their food but they will take free water when available, especially when feeding on high-protein food. When given a choice, they prefer sweetened liquids over plain water.
Their preferred nesting sites are dark, secluded places where their is abundant nesting material nearby and little chance of disturbance. Nesting materials include paper products, cotton, packing materials, wall/attic insulation, fabrics, etc. Mice are nocturnal in habit. They require an opening of greater than 1-4″ (6 mm) to gain entry.
The key to any mouse control program is pest identification, sanitation, harborage elimination, and mouse-proofing the building. Control is based on the behavioral habits of mice. Some of the most important things to remember are: Mice defecate wherever they travel but mostly where they feed. Mouse droppings serve to indicate where control efforts should be concentrated. Non-toxic tracking powders can also be used to determine where the greatest mouse activity is occurring. Territories are relatively small and rarely exceed 20 ft (6 m) in diameter.
Traps and bait stations must be placed within this area if control is to be effective. If a trap or bait is unused after 48 hours, move it because the mice are elsewhere. Mice are nibblers. Put a little bit of bait in many bait stations to increase exposure and consumption. Change baits until preference is established, then utilize this bait until feeding stops. Mice are inquisitive. Move things around when traps/stations/glue boards are introduced so mice will explore to establish new movement routes. This makes trapping/baiting more successful. Mice like nesting material nearby.
Use nesting material on the trigger of snap traps and in the center of glue boards. Water requirements increase with temperature and/or a lower moisture content of food. Use water baits (sweetened with prune juice, pineapple juice, or original cherry flavor Kool-aid) during hot weather and when food moisture content may be low, e.g., feed and grain elevators, warehouses, etc.
Mice are attracted to certain foods. Bait snap traps and/or the center of glue boards with prunes, fresh pineapple, salted peanuts, or whatever they are feeding on at the time. Outdoors, reproduction is more seasonal, hitting its low between October and January. Because of a reduced chance of introductions, concentrated control efforts should be more effective in eliminating the mice during this low period.